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League of Augsburg European alliance. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: The resulting war lasted from to Despite many victories, Louis gave up part of his territorial acquisitions when he signed the Treaty of Rijswijk, for which the public judged him harshly.
He reconciled himself to another painful…. To oppose this, the League of Augsburg was formed on July 9, , by Emperor Leopold, the electors of Bavaria, Saxony, and the Palatinate, and the kings of Sweden and Spain in their capacity as princes of the empire.
This league proved to be ineffective because of the reluctance…. Leopold I , Holy Roman emperor during whose lengthy reign — Austria emerged from a series of struggles with the Turks and the French to become a great European power, in which monarchical absolutism and administrative centralism gained ascendancy.
Louis XIV, king of France — who ruled his country, principally from his great palace at Versailles, during one of its most brilliant periods and who remains the symbol of absolute monarchy of the classical age.
Leopold I had tried to disentangle himself from the Turkish war to concentrate on the coming struggle, but the French invasion of the Rhineland had encouraged the Turks to stiffen their terms for peace and make demands the Emperor could not conceivably accept.
Although the Emperor's immediate concerns were for the Rhineland, the most important parts of the treaty were the secret articles pledging England and the States-General to assist him in securing the Spanish succession should Charles II die without an heir, and to use their influence to secure his son's election to succeed him as Emperor.
William III regarded the war as an opportunity to reduce the power of France and protect the Dutch Republic, while providing conditions that would encourage trade and commerce.
By seeking refuge in France and subsequently invading Ireland, James II had given William III the ideal instrument to convince the English parliament that entry into a major European war was unavoidable.
Like the Dutch the English were not preoccupied with territorial gains on the Continent, but were deeply concerned with limiting the power of France to defend against a Jacobite restoration Louis XIV threatened to overthrow the Glorious Revolution and the precarious political settlement by supporting the old king over the new one.
The Allies had offered Victor Amadeus handsome terms to join the Grand Alliance, including the return of Casale to Mantua he hoped it would revert to him upon the death of the childless Duke of Mantua and of Pinerolo to himself.
The main fighting of the Nine Years' War took place around France's borders: The importance of the Spanish Netherlands was the result of its geographic position, sandwiched between France and the Dutch Republic.
However, by the Spanish Netherlands had become the main seat of the war where the French formed two armies: On 1 July Luxembourg secured a clear tactical victory over Waldeck at the Battle of Fleurus ; but his success produced little benefit — Louis XIV's concerns for the dauphin on the Rhine where Marshal de Lorge now held actual command overrode strategic necessity in the other theatres and forestalled a plan to besiege Namur or Charleroi.
The Elector of Bavaria — now Imperial commander-in-chief following Lorraine's death in April — could offer nothing on the lower or upper Rhine, and the campaign failed to produce a single major battle or siege.
The smallest front of the war was in Catalonia. In the Duke of Noailles had led French forces there aimed at bringing further pressure to bear on the Spanish by re-igniting a peasant rising against Charles II, which initially broke out in Exploiting the situation, Noailles captured Camprodon on 22 May, but a larger Spanish army under the Duke of Villahermosa forced him to withdraw back to Roussillon in August.
A ferment of religious animosities and Savoyard hatred of the French produced a theatre characterised by massacres and atrocities: Catinat immediately took Saluzzo , followed by Savigliano , Fossano , and Susa , but lacking sufficient troops, and with sickness rife within his army, Catinat was obliged to withdraw back across the Alps for the winter.
French successes in had checked the Allies on most of the mainland fronts, yet their victories had not broken the Grand Alliance.
With the hope of unhinging the coalition French commanders in prepared for an early double-blow: Boufflers invested Mons on 15 March with some 46, men, while Luxembourg commanded a similar force of observation.
After some of the most intense fighting of all of Louis XIV's wars the town inevitably capitulated on 8 April. In there was little significant fighting in the Catalan and Rhineland fronts.
In contrast, the northern Italian theatre was very active. Villefranche fell to French forces on 20 March, followed by Nice on 1 April, forestalling any chance of an Allied invasion of France along the coast.
However, by comparison the French campaign on the Piedmontese plain was far from successful. The initiative in northern Italy now passed to the Allies who, as early as August, had 45, men on paper in the region, enabling them to regain Carmagnola in October.
Louis XIV offered peace terms in December, but anticipating military superiority for the following campaign Amadeus was not prepared to negotiate seriously.
After the sudden death of the influential Louvois in July Louis XIV had assumed a more active role in the direction of military policy, relying on advice from experts such as the Marquis of Chamlay and Vauban.
The approaches made to Spain came to naught the Nine Years' War was not a religious war , but the Maritime Powers were also keen for peace.
Talks were hampered, however, by Louis XIV's reluctance to cede his earlier gains at least those made in the Reunions and, in his deference to the principle of the divine right of kings, his unwillingness to recognise William III's claim to the English throne.
Over the winter of —92 the French devised a grand plan to gain the ascendancy over their enemies — a design for the invasion of England in one more effort to support James II in his attempts to regain his kingdoms; and a simultaneous assault on Namur in the Spanish Netherlands.
The French hoped that Namur's seizure might inspire the Dutch to make peace, but if not, its capture would nevertheless be an important pawn at any future negotiations.
The town soon fell but the citadel — defended by van Coehoorn — held out until 30 June. The Allies retired from the field in good order, and both sides claimed victory: However, due to the nature of late 17th-century warfare the battle, like Fleurus before it, produced little of consequence.
While French arms had proved successful at Namur the proposed descent on England was a failure. James II believed that there would be considerable support for his cause once he had established himself on English soil, but a series of delays and conflicting orders ensured a very uneven naval contest in the English Channel.
At the action off Cape Barfleur on 29 May, the French fleet of 44 rated vessels under Admiral Tourville put up stern resistance against Admirals Rooke 's and Russell 's 82 rated English and Dutch vessels.
Yet the battle itself was not the death-blow for the French navy: The Allies invested Embrun , which capitulated on 15 August, before sacking the deserted town of Gap.
De Lorge devoted much of his effort imposing contributions on German lands, spreading terror far and wide in Swabia and Franconia.
By the French army had reached an official size of over , men on paper , but Louis XIV was facing an economic crisis.
In the event, Heidelberg fell on 22 May before Luxembourg's army took to the field in the Netherlands, but the new Imperial commander on the Rhine, Prince Louis of Baden , provided a strong defence and prevented further French gains.
Luxembourg had better luck in the Low Countries, however. The ensuing engagement on 29 July was a close and costly encounter but French forces, whose cavalry once again showed their superiority, prevailed.
In northern Italy, meanwhile, Catinat marched on Rivoli with reinforcements from the Rhine and Catalan fronts , forcing the Duke of Savoy to abandon the siege and bombardment of Pinerolo 25 September — 1 October before withdrawing to protect his rear.
The resultant Battle of Marsaglia on 4 October ended in a resounding French victory. Turin now lay open to attack but further manpower and supply difficulties prevented Catinat from exploiting his gain, and all the French could get out of their victory was renewed breathing-space to restock what was left of Pinerolo.
When his opponent, Medina-Sidonia, abandoned plans to besiege Bellver , both sides entered winter quarters. On 27 June Tourville's combined Brest and Toulon squadrons ambushed the Smyrna convoy a fleet of between — Allied merchant vessels travelling under escort to the Mediterranean as it rounded Cape St.
The Allies lost approximately 90 merchant ships with a value of some 30 million livres. French arms at Heidelberg, Rosas, Huy, Landen, Charleroi and Marsaglia had achieved considerable battlefield success, but with the severe hardships of continuing through to the summer of France was unable to expend the same level of energy and finance for the forthcoming campaign.
The crisis reshaped French strategy, forcing commanders to redraft plans to fit the dictates of fiscal shortfalls.
The Grand Alliance would not come apart as long as there was money available and a belief that the growing strength of their armies would soon be much greater than those of France.
In the Spanish Netherlands Luxembourg still had , men; but he was outnumbered. Part of the fleet under Admiral Berkeley would remain in the north, first leading the disastrous amphibious assault on Brest on 18 June, before bombarding French coastal defences at Dieppe , Saint-Malo , Le Havre , and Calais.
The remainder of the fleet under Admiral Russell was ordered to the Mediterranean, linking up with Spanish vessels off Cadiz.
In French arms suffered two major setbacks: The French had attempted diversions with the bombardment of Brussels , but despite Boufflers' stout defence Namur finally fell on 5 September.
Meanwhile, the recent fiscal crisis had brought about a transformation in French naval strategy — the Maritime Powers now outstripped France in shipbuilding and arming, and increasingly enjoyed a numerical advantage.
Vauban argued that this strategic change would deprive the enemy of its economic base without costing Louis XIV money that was far more urgently needed to maintain France's armies on land.
Privateers cruising either as individuals or in complete squadrons from Dunkirk , St Malo and the smaller ports, achieved significant success. For example, in , the Marquis of Nesmond , with seven ships of the line, captured vessels from the English East India Company that were said to have yielded 10 million livres.
In May , Jean Bart slipped the blockade of Dunkirk and struck a Dutch convoy in the North Sea , burning 45 of its ships; on 18 June he won the battle at Dogger Bank ; and in May , the Baron of Pointis with another privateer squadron attacked and seized Cartagena , earning him, and the king, a share of 10 million livres.
But the balance of military power was turning dangerously against the French. In the meantime the diplomatic breakthrough was made in Italy.
Central to the discussions were the two French fortresses that flanked the Duke's territory — Pinerolo and Casale, the latter now completely cut off from French assistance.
Knowing, therefore, that the Imperials were planning to besiege Casale the Duke proposed that the French garrison surrender to him following a token show of force, after which the fortifications would be dismantled and handed back to the Duke of Mantua.
Most fronts were relatively quiet throughout The most difficult of these were the recognition of the Prince of Orange as the King of England and the subsequent status of James II in France; the Dutch demand for a barrier against future French aggression; French tariffs on Dutch commerce; and the territorial settlements in the Rhine—Moselle areas regarding the Reunions and the recent conquests, particularly the strategically important city of Strasbourg.
In Italy the secret negotiations were proving more productive, with the French possession of Pinerolo now central to the talks.
When Amadeus threatened to besiege Pinerolo the French, concluding that its defence was not now possible, agreed to hand back the stronghold on condition that its fortifications were demolished.
The Emperor, diplomatically outmanoeuvred, was compelled to accept peace in the region by signing the Treaty of Vigevano of 7 October, to which the French immediately acceded.
Italy was neutralised and the Nine Years' War in the peninsula came to an end. Savoy had emerged as an independent sovereign House and a key second-rank power: The Treaty of Turin started a scramble for peace.
With the continual disruption of trade and commerce politicians from England and the Dutch Republic were desirous for an end to the war.
France was also facing economic exhaustion, but above all Louis XIV was becoming convinced that Charles II of Spain was near death and he knew that the break-up of the coalition would be essential if France was to benefit from the dynastic battle ahead.
But as talks continued through , so did the fighting. The main French goal that year in the Spanish Netherlands was Ath.
Vauban and Catinat now with troops freed from the Italian font invested the town on 15 May while Marshals Boufflers and Villeroi covered the siege; after an assault on 5 June the Count of Roeux surrendered and the garrison marched out two days later.
The Rhineland theatre in was again quiet: Although Baden took Ebernberg on 27 September, news of the peace brought an end to the desultory campaign, and both armies drew back from one another.
Yet it had been a hard-fought contest: French casualties amounted to about 9,, and the Spanish had suffered some 12, killed, wounded or lost.
The European war was reflected in North America, where it was known as King William's War , though the North American contest was very different in meaning and scale.
The European war declaration arrived amid long-running tensions over control of the fur trade , economically vital to both French and English colonies, and influence over the Iroquois , who controlled much of that trade.
Lawrence country and to extend their power over the vast basin of the Mississippi. Although important to the colonists, the North American theatre of the Nine Years' War was of secondary importance to European statesmen.
Despite numerical superiority, the English colonists suffered repeated defeats as New France effectively organised its French troops, local militia and Indian allies notably the Algonquins and Abenakis , to attack frontier settlements.
Friction over Indian relations worsened in with French incursions against the Iroquois in upstate New York, and with Indian raids against smaller settlements in Maine.
In response, on 1 May at the Albany Conference, colonial representatives elected to invade Canada. The war dragged on for several years longer in a series of desultory sallies and frontier massacres: In Newfoundland and Hudson's Bay French influence now predominated but William III, who had made the interests of the Bay Company a cause of war in North America, was not prepared to hazard his European policy for the sake of their pursuit.
The Iroquois Five Nations , abandoned by their English allies, were obliged to open separate negotiations, and by the treaty of they agreed to remain neutral in any future Anglo-French war.
When news of the European war reached Asia, English, French and Dutch colonial governors and merchants quickly took up the struggle.
The Caribbean and the Americas were historically an area of conflict between England and Spain but the two were now Allies while outside North America French interests were far less significant.
Saint Kitts twice changed hands and there was sporadic conflict in Jamaica , Martinique and Hispaniola but mutual suspicion between the English and Spanish limited joint operations.
The Allies had the naval advantage in these isolated areas, though it proved impossible to keep the French from supplying their colonial forces.
By , it was clear the campaigns in Flanders had not dealt a decisive blow to either the Dutch Republic or England and so the French switched to attacking their trade.
The Battle of Lagos in and the loss of the Smyrna convoy caused intense anger among English merchants who demanded increased global protection from the navy.
In , a combination of regular French naval forces and privateers went to the Caribbean hoping to intercept the Spanish silver fleet; this was a double threat since capture of the silver would give France a major financial boost while the Spanish ships also carried English cargoes.
This failed but combined with de Pointis' expedition of demonstrated the vulnerability of English interests in the Caribbean and North America; their protection in future conflicts became a matter of urgency.
The Swedes were the official mediators, but it was through the private efforts of Boufflers and William Bentinck, the Earl of Portland that the major issues were resolved.
Lorraine returned to its duke although France retained rights to march troops through the territory , and the French abandoned all gains on the right bank of the Rhine — Philppsburg, Breisach, Freiburg and Kehl.
Beyond this, the French gained recognition of their ownership of the western half of the island of Hispaniola. The representatives of the Dutch Republic, England, and Spain signed the treaty on 20 September Emperor Leopold I, desperate for a continuation of the war so as to strengthen his own claims to the Spanish succession, initially resisted the treaty, but because he was still at war with the Turks, and could not face fighting France alone, he also sought terms and signed on 30 October.
The Protestant princes had also blamed him for the religious clause in the treaty, which stipulated that the lands of the Reunions that France was to surrender would remain Catholic, even those that had been forcibly converted—a clear defiance of the Westphalia settlement.
Additionally, Prince Eugene of Savoy's decisive victory over the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Zenta — leading to the Treaty of Karlowitz in — consolidated the Austrian Habsburgs and tipped the European balance of power in favour of the Emperor.
England emerged as a great economic and naval power and became an important player in European affairs, allowing her to use her wealth and energy in world politics to the fullest advantage.
The campaign season typically lasted through May to October; due to lack of fodder campaigns in winter were rare, but the French practice of storing food and provisions in magazines brought them considerable advantage, often enabling them to take to the field weeks before their foes.
The war was dominated by what may be called 'positional warfare' — the construction, defence, and attack of fortresses and entrenched lines.
Positional warfare played a wide variety of roles: However, fortresses hampered the ability to follow success on the battlefield — defeated armies could flee to friendly fortifications, enabling them to recover and rebuild their numbers from less threatened fronts.
William III, Boufflers, and Luxembourg had the will to win but their methods were hampered by numbers, supply, and communications.
Another contributing factor for the lack of decisive action was the necessity to fight for secure resources. Armies were expected to support themselves in the field by imposing contributions taxing local populations upon a hostile, or even neutral, territory.
Subjecting a particular area to contributions was deemed more important than pursuing a defeated army from the battlefield to destroy it.
It was primarily financial concerns and availability of resources that shaped campaigns, as armies struggled to outlast the enemy in a long war of attrition.
The major advancement in weapon technology in the s was the introduction of the flintlock musket. The new firing mechanism provided superior rates of fire and accuracy over the cumbersome matchlocks.
But the adoption of the flintlock was uneven, and until for every three Allied soldiers that were equipped with the new muskets, two soldiers were still handicapped by matchlocks: Its predecessor, the plug bayonet — jammed down the firearm's barrel — not only prevented the musket from firing but was also a clumsy weapon that took time to fix properly, and even more time to unfix.
In contrast, the socket-bayonet could be drawn over the musket's muzzle and locked into place by a lug, converting the musket into a short pike yet leaving it capable of fire.
In the most powerful navies were the French, English, and Dutch; the Spanish and Portuguese navies had suffered serious declines in the 17th century.
By the s, French ship-design was at least equal to its English and Dutch counterparts, and by the Nine Years' War the French fleet had surpassed ships of the Royal Navy , whose designs stagnated in the s.
At some stage in the s, for example, English ships began to employ the ship's wheel , greatly improving their performance, particularly in heavy weather.
The French navy did not adopt the wheel for another thirty years. Combat between naval fleets was decided by cannon duels delivered by ships in line of battle ; fireships were also used but were mainly successful against anchored and stationary targets, while the new bomb vessels operated best in bombarding targets on shore.
Sea battles rarely proved decisive. Fleets faced the almost impossible task of inflicting enough damage on ships and men to win a clear victory: Most importantly, though, Louis XIV had to concentrate his resources on the army at the expense of the fleet, enabling the Dutch, and the English in particular, to outdo the French in ship construction.
However, naval actions were comparatively uncommon and, just like battles on land, the goal was generally to outlast rather than to destroy one's opponent.
Louis XIV regarded his navy as an extension of his army — the French fleet's most important role was to protect the French coast from enemy invasion.
Louis used his fleet to support land and amphibious operations or the bombardment of coastal targets, designed to draw enemy resources from elsewhere and thus aid his land campaigns on the continent.
Once the Allies had secured a clear superiority in numbers the French found it prudent not to contest them in fleet action. At the start of the Nine Years' War the French fleet had rated vessels and a total of ships of all types.
By the end of the war the French had rated ships. In contrast, the English fleet started the war with vessels of all types, and ended it with Between and the French built 19 first- to fifth-rated ships; the English built 58 such vessels, and the Dutch constructed Thus the maritime powers outbuilt the French at a rate of four vessels to one.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from War of the League of Augsburg. Great Turkish War and War of the Reunions.
Williamite War in Ireland. Williamite—Jacobite War in Ireland. Jacobite rising of The Julian calendar as used in England until differed by ten days after the calendar differed by 11 days until Great Britain adopted the Gregorian calendar in In this article O.
This varying nomenclature reflects the fact that contemporaries — as well as later historians — viewed the general conflict from particular national or dynastic viewpoints.