Als Wahhabiten werden die Angehörigen des Wahabitentums ( arabisch وهّابية. Saudi-Arabien: Reise- und Sicherheitshinweise der Europäischen Union zu den letzten Entwicklungen im Fall des saudischen Journalisten Jamal Khashoggi . Mohammed bin Salman - Dynastie der Saud - Hasa bint Sudairi -. Die Lobster deutsch des Live stream italien irland Frühlings stellten für Saudi-Arabien eine Herausforderung dar, die es so in der arabischen Welt seit einem halben Jahrhundert nicht mehr gegeben hatte. Der öffentliche Nahverkehr casino sonthofen von dieselgetriebenen Omnibussen bewältigt, die sich die Fahrspuren mit dem Individualverkehr teilen. Das Stadtgebiet hat eine Fläche von 1. Die Umgebung von Riad ist topographisch sehr vielfältig. Maas besänftigt die Saudis. Die darauffolgende Bundesregierung unter Helmut Kohl wales - belgien an ihrem gefassten Beschluss fest, das Waffensystem nicht an einen potentiellen Gegner Israels zu liefern. Im Bereich Erdöl und dessen Verarbeitung verfügt das Königreich über renommierte Bildungseinrichtungen. Eine Zustimmung eines männlichen Verwandten zu einem Studium oder Arbeitsaufnahme ist mittlerweile nicht mehr gesetzlich erforderlich. Sie habe bis nach Mitternacht vergebens auf den Mann gewartet, den sie am nächsten Tag heiraten wollte. Der Menschenrechtsaktivist spricht von einem Krieg der saudischen Regierung gegen die eigene Bevölkerung, wie es ihn in der über jährigen Geschichte des Landes noch nicht gegeben habe. Royal Saudi Air Force. Nicht-arabischstämmige Ausländer sind meist als Gastarbeiter tätig. In der arabischen Symbolwelt deutet dies auf Einverständnis von Trump hin offizieller Tenor: Ab sofort gibt es eine Mehrwertsteuer - und Benzin ist drastisch teurer. Sie sagt ja nicht, dass dort Menschenrechte etwas gelten, sonder nur, dass es stabil ist. Die meisten Hinrichtungen werden durch Enthauptung vollstreckt . Die Verurteilten, ihre Anwälte und Angehörigen erfahren den Hinrichtungstermin oft nicht. Da die aus der Raffinierung hergestellten Produkte wie Heizöl , Benzin , Kerosin und Diesel den Bedarf im Königreich bei weitem übersteigen, werden diese an Länder exportiert, die keine eigene Raffinerie-Industrie besitzen. In den meisten Teilen des Landes ist die Vegetation auf niedrige Gräser und kleine Sträucher beschränkt. Wegen angeblichen Terrorismus wurde er hingerichtet. Der Kauf der Waffen war nicht an Bedingungen wie die Verbesserung der Menschenrechtslage in Saudi-Arabien oder ein Ende der verheerenden Luftangriffe einer saudisch geführten Koalition im Jemen gebunden Militärintervention im Jemen seit Seine höhere Bildung erhielt er am Islamischen Institut in Mekkawo er zusätzlich casino 59 religiösen Studien Grundlagen der Hochschulmathematik und Geographie studierte. Er ist mit Stacheldraht gesichert, aber breit genug für ein Diplomatenauto, mit dem man den Journalisten saudi arbaien Beste Spielothek in Kresham finden Khashoggi aus dem Konsulat Beste Spielothek in Scheiderhöhe finden bringen können - tot oder lebendig. Dabei wurde die Casino rama location der 14 Mitglieder des Gemeinderates neu gewählt. Seither hat er das rasche Wachstum der Hauptstadt überwacht und gefördert. Diese würden 1. fc köln ii Realität nicht standhalten. Die Volkszählung am Die innenpolitische Situation Saudi-Arabiens ist angespannt. Israel verkleinert Fangzone der Palästinenser. Jetzt gilt die Krise als beendet - allerdings mit Beigeschmack. Nach Verschwinden eines Journalisten. Die Gründe hierfür sind unterschiedlich. Einen Beleg dafür liefert Riad nicht. SZ-Podcast "Auf den Punkt".
Saudi Arbaien VideoHaya, ein Mädchen in Saudi-Arabien
Det är den till ytan största staten i Mellanöstern. Det stora flertalet bekänner sig till en strikt, sunnimuslimsk tolkning av islam som kallas wahhabism.
Arabien räknades politiskt till Osmanska riket. Enligt den första skrivna saudiarabiska grundlagen , som publicerades i början av mars , är Saudiarabien en monarki med sunnimuslimsk konstitution, som skall försvara de mänskliga rättigheterna som de tolkas av sharia artiklar 1 och Kungen utnämner sin kronprins , och gränsen mellan deras befogenheter kan variera efter kungens beslut.
Vid kungens död övertar kronprinsen tronen. Enligt grundlagen skall efterträdaren vara den mest lämpade artikel 5.
Grundlagen definierar maktdelningen i termer av dömande makt, verkställande makt och organisatorisk makt artikel Kronprinsen är bland annat vice regeringschef och försvarsminister.
Ett särskilt fokus i grundlagen fästs vid familjens position i samhället som dess nav 9— Saudiarabien är den mäktigaste medlemmen av de muslimska ländernas organisation IKO Islamiska konferensorganisationen grundad Organisationen har 57 medlemmar och sitt högkvarter och sekretariat i Jedda, Saudiarabien.
Saudiarabien är en av de största finansiärerna av verksamheten och hör till dess mest inflytelserika medlemmar.
Wahhabismen är en fundamentalistisk tolkning av sunni islam till vilken det stora flertalet sunniter i landet bekänner sig. Den shiitiska minoriteten, som utgör cirka 15 procent av befolkningen, dominerar landets östra delar.
Medlemmar av klanen Schejk har även viktiga ledande poster inom polisen och de väpnade styrkorna. Landet trycker mycket wahhabisk litteratur som säljs utomlands.
Sedan finns en skriven grundlag, Basic Law of Government , som reglerar hur landet ska styras samt stadgar vissa personliga rättigheter.
Domstolars individuella tolkning av sharia , islamisk rätt, präglar domsluten. Församlings- eller religionsfrihet existerar inte. Dödsstraff tillämpas och som regel sker avrättningarna i form av halshuggning för män och arkebusering för kvinnor [ 16 ] Avrättningen sker ofta offentligt med svärd.
Utdrag ur [ 23 ]. Religionsfrihet existerar inte i Saudiarabien och saudisk lagstiftning föreskriver inte heller detta.
Religiösa minoriteters rättigheter respekteras inte. Icke-islamiska grupper har inte rätt att ha egna gudstjänst- eller samlingslokaler.
Förutom förbudet mot att praktisera eller missionera för andra religioner än islam accepteras inte heller offentliga symboler som har sitt ursprung i andra religioner.
Kvinnors klädsel är reglerad i lag. As late as , most Saudis lived a subsistence life in the rural provinces, but in the last half of the 20th century the kingdom has urbanized rapidly.
Its population is also quite young with over half the population under 25 years old. As recently as the early s, Saudi Arabia's slave population was estimated at , The official language of Saudi Arabia is Arabic.
The three main regional variants spoken by Saudis are Hejazi Arabic about 6 million speakers  , Najdi Arabic about 8 million speakers  , and Gulf Arabic about 0.
Saudi Sign Language is the principal language of the deaf community. The large expatriate communities also speak their own languages, the most numerous of which are Tagalog , , Rohingya , , Urdu , , and Egyptian Arabic , Virtually all Saudi citizens are Muslim  officially, all are , and almost all Saudi residents are Muslim.
Other denominations, such as the minority Shia Islam , are systematically suppressed. According to estimates there are about 1,, Christians in Saudi Arabia, almost all foreign workers.
The percentage of Saudi Arabian citizens who are Christians is officially zero,  as Saudi Arabia forbids religious conversion from Islam apostasy and punishes it by death.
There may be a significant fraction of atheists and agnostics in Saudi Arabia,   although they are officially called "terrorists".
In its religious freedom report, the U. Foreign Muslims  who have resided in the kingdom for ten years may apply for Saudi citizenship. Priority is given to holders of degrees in various scientific fields,  and exception made for Palestinians who are excluded unless married to a Saudi national, because of Arab League instructions barring the Arab states from granting them citizenship.
As Saudi population grows and oil export revenues stagnate, pressure for " Saudization " the replacement of foreign workers with Saudis has grown, and the Saudi government hopes to decrease the number of foreign nationals in the country.
Various Human Rights entities have criticised Saudi Arabia's handling of the issue. Saudi Arabia has centuries-old attitudes and traditions, often derived from Arab civilization.
This culture has been heavily influenced by the austerely puritanical Wahhabi form of Islam, which arose in the eighteenth century and now predominates in the country.
Wahhabi Islam has been called "the predominant feature of Saudi culture. Islam is the state religion of Saudi Arabia and its law requires that all citizens be Muslims.
Proponents call the movement " Salafism ",  and believe that its teachings purify the practice of Islam of innovations or practices that deviate from the seventh-century teachings of Muhammad and his companions.
More than a billion Sunnis have simply had enough of them. Saudi Arabia is one of the few countries that have " religious police " known as Haia or Mutaween , who patrol the streets " enjoining good and forbidding wrong " by enforcing dress codes , strict separation of men and women , attendance at prayer salat five times each day, the ban on alcohol, and other aspects of Sharia Islamic law.
In the privacy of the home behavior can be far looser, and reports from the Daily Mail and WikiLeaks indicate that the ruling Saudi Royal family applies a different moral code to itself, indulging in parties, drugs and sex.
Until , the kingdom used the lunar Islamic calendar , not the international Gregorian calendar ,  but in the kingdom announced its switch to the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes.
Daily life is dominated by Islamic observance. Businesses are closed three or four times a day  for 30 to 45 minutes during business hours while employees and customers are sent off to pray.
As of [update] approximately half of the broadcast airtime of Saudi state television was devoted to religious issues. In contrast, assigned readings over twelve years of primary and secondary schooling devoted to covering the history, literature, and cultures of the non-Muslim world comes to a total of about 40 pages.
Because of religious restrictions, Saudi culture lacks any diversity of religious expression, buildings, annual festivals and public events.
Proselytizing by non-Muslims and conversion by Muslims to another religion is illegal,  and as of [update] the distribution of "publications that have prejudice to any other religious belief other than Islam" such as Bibles , was reportedly punishable by death.
Saudi Wahhabism is hostile to any reverence given to historical or religious places of significance for fear that it may give rise to 'shirk' idolatry , and the most significant historic Muslim sites in Mecca and Medina are located in the western Saudi region of Hejaz.
In June , the Council of Ministers approved a law that gives the Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage the means to protect Saudi Arabia's ancient relics and historic sites.
Within the framework of the National Transformation Program, also known as Saudi Vision , the kingdom allocated million euros to preserve its historical and cultural heritage.
Saudi Arabian dress strictly follows the principles of hijab the Islamic principle of modesty , especially in dress.
The predominantly loose and flowing, but covering, garments are suited to Saudi Arabia's desert climate. Traditionally, men usually wear a white ankle length garment woven from wool or cotton known as a thawb , with a keffiyeh a large checkered square of cotton held in place by an agal or a ghutra a plain white square made of finer cotton, also held in place by an agal worn on the head.
For rare chilly days, Saudi men wear a camel -hair cloak bisht over the top. In public women are required to wear a black abaya or other black clothing that covers everything under the neck with the exception of their hands and feet, although most women cover their head in respect for their religion.
This requirement applies to non-Muslim women too and failure to abide can result in police action, particularly in more conservative areas of the country.
Women's clothes are often decorated with tribal motifs, coins, sequins, metallic thread, and appliques. During the s, cinemas were numerous in the Kingdom although they were seen as contrary to Wahhabi norms.
From the 18th century onward, Wahhabi fundamentalism discouraged artistic development inconsistent with its teaching. In addition, Sunni Islamic prohibition of creating representations of people have limited the visual arts, which tend to be dominated by geometric , floral , and abstract designs and by calligraphy.
With the advent of oil-wealth in the 20th century came exposure to outside influences, such as Western housing styles, furnishings, and clothes.
Music and dance have always been part of Saudi life. Traditional music is generally associated with poetry and is sung collectively.
Censorship has limited the development of Saudi literature, although several Saudi novelists and poets have achieved critical and popular acclaim in the Arab world—albeit generating official hostility in their home country.
Football is the national sport in Saudi Arabia. The Saudi Arabia national football team is considered as one of Asia's most successful national teams, having reached a joint record 6 AFC Asian Cup finals, winning three of those finals , , and and having qualified for the World Cup four consecutive times ever since debuting at the tournament.
Scuba diving , windsurfing , sailing and basketball which is played by both men and women are also popular with the Saudi Arabian national basketball team winning bronze at the Asian Championship.
A stadium in Riyadh holds races in the winter. The annual King's Camel Race, begun in , is one of the sport's most important contests and attracts animals and riders from throughout the region.
Falconry , another traditional pursuit, is still practiced. Women's sport is controversial due to the suppression of female participation in sport by conservative Islamic religious authorities  , however this restriction has eased slightly in recent years.
Segregated seating, allowing women to enter, has been developed in three stadiums across major cities. Saudi Arabian cuisine is similar to that of the surrounding countries in the Arabian Peninsula and the wider Arab world, and has influenced and been influenced by Turkish, Indian, Persian, and African food.
Islamic dietary laws are enforced: Flat, unleavened taboon bread is a staple of virtually every meal, as are dates , fresh fruit, yoghurt and hummus.
Coffee, served in the Arabic style , is the traditional beverage but tea and various fruit juices are popular as well. The earliest substantiated evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is from the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of Arabia.
Women do not have equal rights to men in the kingdom; the U. State Department considers Saudi Arabian government's discrimination against women a "significant problem" in Saudi Arabia and notes that women have few political rights due to the government's discriminatory policies.
Under Saudi law, every adult female must have a male relative as her "guardian" wali ,  As of , a woman was required to have permission from her male guardian in order to travel, study, or work.
The order however also stated that it should only be allowed if it doesn't contradict the Sharia system. According to a leading Saudi feminist and journalist, Wajeha al-Huwaider , "Saudi women are weak, no matter how high their status, even the 'pampered' ones among them, because they have no law to protect them from attack by anyone.
Women face discrimination in the courts, where the testimony of one man equals that of two women in family and inheritance law.
The average age at first marriage among Saudi females is 25 years in Saudi Arabia,  with child marriage no longer common. Obesity is a problem among middle and upper class Saudis who have domestic servants to do traditional work but, until , were forbidden to drive and so are limited in their ability to leave their home.
The religious police , known as the mutawa , impose many restrictions on women in public in Saudi Arabia. Although Saudi Arabia imposes a strict dress code on women throughout the country by using religious police , female anchors working for Al-Arabia news network which is partly owned by Prince Abdulaziz , the son of the late King Fahad , are prohibited from wearing a veil and are encouraged to adopt a Western dress code.
A few Saudi women have risen to the top of the medical profession; for example, Dr. Ghada Al-Mutairi heads a medical research center in California  and Dr.
On 25 September , King Abdullah announced that Saudi women would gain the right to vote and to be candidates in municipal elections, provided that a male guardian grants permission.
In August , a law was passed that criminalized domestic violence against women. In April , bin Salman announced a project to build one of the world's largest cultural, sports and entertainment cities in Al Qidiya, southwest of Riyadh.
The square kilometre city will include a safari and a Six Flags theme park. As of February , Saudi women can now open their own business, without a male's permission.
In March a law was passed allowing Saudi mothers to retain custody of their children after divorce without having to file any lawsuits. In April the first public cinema opened in Saudi Arabia after a ban of 35 years, with plans to have more than 2, screens running by In June , King Salman issued a decree allowing women to drive , lifting the world's only ban on women drivers.
Other domestic reforms include significant regulations restricting the powers of the religious police and establishing a national entertainment authority that has hosted comedy shows, pro wrestling events, and monster truck rallies.
Further cultural developments include the first Saudi public concerts by a female singer, the first Saudi sports stadiums to admit women, and an increased presence of women in the workforce.
Education is free at all levels. The school system is composed of elementary, intermediate, and secondary schools. A large part of the curriculum at all levels is devoted to Islam, and, at the secondary level, students are able to follow either a religious or a technical track.
The rate of literacy is Higher education has expanded rapidly, with large numbers of Universities and colleges being founded particularly since Institutions of higher education include the country's first university, King Saud University founded in , the Islamic University at Medina founded in , and the King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah founded in Other colleges and universities emphasize curricula in sciences and technology, military studies, religion, and medicine.
Institutes devoted to Islamic studies, in particular, abound. Women typically receive college instruction in segregated institutions.
The Academic Ranking of World Universities , known as Shanghai Ranking, ranked 4 of Saudi Arabian institutions among its — list of the top universities in the world.
According to critics, Saudi curriculum is not just dominated by Islam but suffers from Wahhabi dogma that propagates hatred towards non-Muslim and non-Wahhabis  and lacks technical and other education useful for productive employment.
Memorization by rote of large parts of the Qur'an, its interpretation and understanding Tafsir and the application of Islamic tradition to everyday life is at the core of the curriculum.
Religion taught in this manner is also a compulsory subject for all University students. That's not generally what Saudi Arabia's educational system delivers, steeped as it is in rote learning and religious instruction.
The religious sector of the Saudi national curriculum was examined in a report by Freedom House which concluded that "the Saudi public school religious curriculum continues to propagate an ideology of hate toward the 'unbeliever', that is, Christians, Jews, Shiites, Sufis, Sunni Muslims who do not follow Wahhabi doctrine, Hindus , atheists and others".
This radical teaching takes place in Saudi funded mosques and madrasas across the Islamic world from Morocco to Pakistan to Indonesia.
According to the educational plan for secondary high school education — Hijri , students enrolling in the "natural sciences" path are required to take five religion subjects which are: In addition, students are required to take six science subjects which are Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geology and Computer.
The approach taken in the Saudi education system has been accused of encouraging Islamic terrorism , leading to reform efforts.
It also aims to create an education system which will provide a more secular and vocationally based training.
As of , Saudi Arabia ranks 28 worldwide in terms of high-quality research output according to the renowned scientific journal Nature.
Saudi Arabia has a life expectancy of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see KSA disambiguation.
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